Tennis Accessories

Why Do They Put Sand On Tennis Courts?

Why do they put sand on tennis courts? It provides traction, absorbs moisture, and fills cracks to create an even playing surface for smooth play.

Tennis players are familiar with the sight of finely crushed sand scattered across the smooth playing surface of tennis courts.

But why is sand applied on tennis courts in the first place? The sand serves some important functions that help optimize the courts for competitive play.

Why Do They Put Sand On Tennis Courts?


When it comes to your regular tennis courts, sand isn’t the go-to choice. Traditional tennis courts are usually crafted from materials like asphalt, concrete, or clay. These materials are like the reliable foundation of a game of tennis – steady and consistent.

The decision on what type of court to go for hinges on things like what players like, the weather, maintenance, and how fast you want the ball to go zipping around. But, hold your horses, there’s another kind of court out there – the “sand court” or “beach tennis court.”

This one dances to a different tune compared to the good ol’ tennis court you’re picturing. Beach tennis, my friend, is like the love child of tennis and beach volleyball. You’re playing on a court with sand beneath your feet. Now, sand here isn’t just there to tag along; it’s playing a pivotal role.

It’s all about giving you a softer landing and making those impacts less intense, like a friendly cushion. And guess what? That means fewer boo-boos. So, it’s all about upping the safety game and tweaking the playing field for a change. Plus, playing on sand gives you a whole new vibe – kind of like playing on regular courts’ quirkier cousin.

So, while sand isn’t the star of the show on your average tennis court, it sure does know how to strut its stuff on beach tennis courts. It’s all about adding a twist to the game, making it more of an adventure while keeping the players’ safety in check. Pretty cool, right?

Anyhow, any more curious questions bouncing around in your head? Don’t hesitate to spill the beans!

Traction is Key

One of the main reasons sand is used on tennis courts is to provide traction for the players. Basically, the tiny grains of sand create just enough friction against the rubber soles of tennis shoes to prevent slipping and sliding.

This traction allows players to move, start, stop, and change directions quickly as needed during a match. You know those scenes where a player slides smoothly into a split step to return a blistering groundstroke? That’s only possible because of the subtle grip created by the layer of sand.

Without sand, a tennis court surface would be dangerously slick. Any small amount of dust, clay, moisture, or even the fuzz from tennis balls could cause players to slip and fall. By filling the tiny pores and grooves of the court material with sand particles, the court maintains consistent traction in all conditions.

The sand grains adhere loosely to the court and the shoes, but not tightly enough to cause a sudden stop or trip players up. It’s a delicate balance, but sand provides optimal grip for smooth and rapid footwork.

Keeping Courts Dry

Another huge benefit of sand is its ability to absorb moisture. We’ve all seen what happens when a little rain or water hits concrete or smooth pavement – puddles start pooling immediately. Tennis courts are very vulnerable to these wet areas which can persist long after the rain stops. Why? Because water has nothing to adhere to and evaporate from the dense, tightly laid court material.

Sand to the rescue! Sand is very porous and absorbs water readily. When scattered across a tennis court, the sand acts like tiny reservoirs that soak up any moisture. This prevents water from beading on the surface and facilitates quicker drying. The particles literally absorb and drink up the moisture until the court returns to ideal dry conditions. No player wants to slip and slide on a wet court – sand keeps the surface safely dry and consistent.

Sand fills any tiny cracks, holes or indentations in older, weathered courts. By doing so, it creates a uniformly flat surface that resists water collection or puddling. The courteous groundskeepers will even drag brushes across the sand to work it into the court crevices regularly. This smooths out the overall plane while still allowing the sand to do its moisture absorption magic.

Silica Sand is Ideal

You may be wondering – why not use just any old sand for tennis courts? The sand used is usually a specialty product known as silica sand. Silica refers to the main mineral compound in the sand which is silicon dioxide. This gives the sand its hard, granular shape and texture.

The sand grains are very small and rounded which provides excellent traction. Larger grains tend to get lodged in shoe treads while smaller dust-like grains blow away too easily. Silica sand offers the ideal compromise while resisting breakdown or decomposition over time.

Other sands often contain small shells, porous coral or limestone fragments that would feel jagged underfoot. The angular shape and hardness of silica sand particles grip shoes well without feeling sharp or uncomfortable. Silica sand also withstands weathering very well.

Since tennis courts get baked by the sun and soaked by rain, an extremely durable material is required. Inferior sands might get mushy or decompose when wet, but silica sand maintains its integrity. This ensures consistent traction over years of use and exposure.

While most silica tennis court sand is neutral gray, various colors are also available. Uniform white sand can lend a clean, elegant look, while deep red tones emulate the classic clay courts played on at Roland Garros.

In the end, neutral off-white silica sand is hard to beat for its subtle visual impact and durability. No matter what color you choose, silica sand delivers optimal performance and longevity.

Application And Maintenance

Applying the sand onto tennis courts is a process requiring care and skill. The sand is spread in very thin layers across the entire court surface to create uniform coverage. Groundskeepers often use specially designed drag brushes to work the sand into the pores and grooves around the court.

This levels any small irregularities while helping the sand adhere loosely to the court substrate. The principle is like gently working flour into bread dough – enough to adhere and provide traction, but not so much that shoes become stuck or bogged down.

Regular brushing and smoothing also contains the sand to the court area and prevents dust or windblown migration. Brushing too aggressively could remove too much sand or damage the court surface.

The goal is to integrate just the right amount into the court material. With proper installation and brushing, a thin layer of sand just a few grains deep is sufficient to do its job effectively.

Over time, the sand does gradually get dispersed through play, wind, and weather. Regular reapplication becomes necessary to keep things fresh. More frequent play naturally requires more frequent top-ups with new sand.

Clay courts often get fresh sand every 1-2 weeks since the surface is softer and absorbs more sand. Hard courts may only need several new coats per year. Regular inspection of the courts helps managers determine the right reapplication schedule.

Some venues go the extra mile by cleaning and recycling existing sand before bringing in new material. This saves costs while reducing environmental waste. Care must be taken to thoroughly wash and sift any recycled sand to remove impurities or degraded grains.

Keeping tennis courts well dressed with the appropriate depth of quality sand is key to their performance and longevity.

Origins At Roland Garros

Using sand or crushed brick as a traction agent on tennis courts originated at the famous Roland Garros facility in Paris. The rich, red clay courts there gave birth to the distinctive French Open tournaments.

In the early 1900s, workers at the Roland Garros courts realized locally crushed brick dust served their needs when more conventional materials were unavailable. The brick particles absorbed moisture while providing enhanced traction for players. The courts played superbly, and thus a tradition was born!

To this day, while crushed brick can still be found, silica sand reigns supreme for most major clay court tournaments worldwide. Wimbledon and the U.S. Open also make limited use of sand on their grass and hard courts as needed.

Though originally an improvised solution, sand has proven itself as an indispensable asset for competitive tennis at all levels. It exemplifies how simple solutions can transform into enduring traditions and pillars of excellence.

The Bottom Line

Sand is such a familiar sight on tennis courts that we often overlook its importance. But this humble material plays a quiet yet crucial role in enabling the great matches we love to watch. By keeping courts dry, quick, and safe under all conditions, sand facilitates dynamic play and showcases players’ talents. It provides the critical balance of traction, smoothness, and consistency.

So next time you step onto a tennis court and see that familiar thin coating of sand, remember it’s not an accident. Consider the long tradition and thought behind its use. Let the sand support you as it has generations of tennis greats, from Rafa Nadal to Serena Williams. With the right surface under their feet, there’s no limit to what amazing feats players can achieve. In sports, even the smallest details matter – and sand on a tennis court is far from a small detail!

Selecting the Best Sand

With sand being such a vital part of quality tennis courts, not just any sand will do. Facilities want to choose the optimal sand to deliver the desired performance and longevity. There are a few key factors to consider when selecting sand for tennis court application:

Particle Size – As mentioned earlier, the ideal sand grains are approximately 1 mm in diameter. This balances the need for traction without being so large as to get trapped in shoe treads or so fine as to blow away in the wind. Within that optimal size range, a distribution of grain sizes allows the sand to both fill cracks as well as provide a uniform surface. Sieving out oversized particles or excessive fines helps achieve this.

Shape – Rounded or sub-angular sands perform best on tennis courts. Angular, sharp sands may provide grip but feel uncomfortable underfoot and abrade shoes prematurely. Rounded silica sand rolls smoothly underfoot while still resisting displacement. Sub-angular grains offer a middle ground shape that packs well while resisting compaction.

Composition – Silica sand is highly recommended for tennis courts, as opposed to calcareous, dolomitic, feldspathic or other sands. The hardness and durability of silica provides weather-resistance without breaking down into fines over time. Other sands may degrade or alter with moisture. Silica’s chemical stability and lack of dust also avoids irritation for players.

Color – Though white sands have a classic, elegant look, tinted sands are popular for hiding scuff marks during play. Green, red, gray, and terra cotta hues help mask shoe marks for better aesthetics. Very dark sands can retain heat and be hot for play during sunny weather. Lighter neutral tones provide the best playability across changing conditions.

Washing – Thoroughly washed sands help eliminate impurities like salts, organic residues or fines. This both improves appearance as well as optimizes the sand for court use. Washing brightens the sand and removes any muddy undertones.

Cost – There is always a balance between cost and quality/consistency. Facilities on a tight budget may opt for more affordable bulk sands representing a mix of shapes and sizes. But competition-level courts will want sands that are sieved, washed and quality controlled to deliver reliable traction. Investing in quality sand upfront prevents headaches down the road.

With so many options to evaluate, working with an experienced sand supplier is advised. They can suggest the right products and gradations to suit your climate, court material, and level of play. A reputable supplier will also provide samples to test how the sand performs on your specific courts before committing to a larger purchase.

Installing The Sand Properly

Application technique is equally as important as sand selection for achieving a well-sanded court. Here are some best practices for installing tennis court sand:

  • Ensure the court surface is clean – Remove any dust, debris or residue to allow the sand to adhere directly to the court material. Wash old sand off entirely before reapplication.
  • Apply in thin layers – Excessive sand depth interferes with play and traction. Just 1 to 2 mm depth is ideal. Apply in multiple thin layers for even coverage.
  • Use a drop spreader – Mechanical sand spreaders provide consistency. Smooth the sand after each application to integrate it.
  • Work sand into cracks – Use drag brushes and brooms to work sand into any cracks or pores in the court substrate, filling them evenly.
  • Level the surface – Lightly smooth the sand after application to level any low spots and create uniform thickness.
  • Contain the perimeter – Gentle sweeping or edging prevents the sand from migrating off the court over time.
  • Allow proper drying – Let freshly applied sand dry completely before intensive play to prevent displacement.
  • Inspect and reapply often – Monitor sand depth and reapply before traction suffers. Frequent light coats work better than infrequent heavy ones.

With careful prep and application, the sand finish should provide excellent traction and playability for 1-2 weeks or longer before requiring reapplication. Be sure to keep spare sand on hand for easy touch-ups as needed to maintain optimal court performance.

Environmental Considerations

With growing awareness of sustainability, it is important to also consider the environmental impact of tennis court sand supplies and disposal. Some strategies to reduce the ecological footprint include:

  • Source sands from local or regional quarries when possible to reduce transport miles.
  • Reuse and recycle existing sand by washing and rescreening onsite before new sand is brought in.
  • Select suppliers who can provide documentation showing responsible quarry practices and reclamation.
  • Dispose of any waste sand in designated construction waste/landfill areas rather than into natural watersheds.
  • Research alternative court traction materials like coconut husk fibers which may be more renewable.
  • Avoid excessive runoff by integrating drainage patterns that collect and retain sand onsite.

With responsible sourcing, reuse, and disposal practices, facilities can still enjoy the benefits of sand for tennis while minimizing its resource consumption and waste. Ensuring sand does not migrate into local waterways or groundwater is crucial to reducing ecological impacts over the long term.

The Satisfying Crunch Underfoot

There’s just something pleasing about the sound and feel of walking on sand-dressed tennis courts. The subtle crunch underfoot provides instant feedback that the court will play true, with just the right amount of controlled slide. The satisfied scuff as players slide into position assures they are in command.

These auditory and tactile cues lend a reassuring rhythm to the game – the sand quickly settles back into place after displaced by aggressive play. The marks left by intense rallies vanish with a quick brush, leaving the surface looking eager for more. Skidding through the sand evokes the fun of being a kid again, scuffing shoes freely with abandon.

Both elite players and weekend warriors alike can find enjoyment in that gritty squeak-and-slide. While providing critical performance, sand also connects us to childlike pleasures. The sing-song cadence of a well-groomed court invites us to come play. Tennis should feel as good as it looks, and sand underfoot completes that experience.

So don’t take the sand on your local tennis courts for granted. Appreciate it for the subtle difference it makes each time your shoes caress the surface. Let it put a bounce in your step and a smile on your face. It takes just the right ingredients to make something great – and sand plays a quiet yet magical role in every match played on the glistening courts we love. Game, set, match…sand!

Should There Be Loose Sand On A Tennis Court?

While sand is indispensable on tennis courts, you may sometimes see loose grains of sand sitting atop the court surface. This can occur when the sand is not actively worked into the court substrate, or from displacement by weather, play, and maintenance. But should tennis courts really have any loose excess sand?

The Downsides Of Loose Sand

Loose, unbound sand on tennis courts can cause a few headaches:

  • It can create uneven traction and slippery areas when it accumulates in piles.
  • Blowing loose sand interferes with play and gets in player’s eyes and shoes.
  • When sand migrates off the court, it needs frequent replacement.
  • Excess granules on the surface can abrade and damage shoes prematurely.
  • Loose sand does not weather well and can blow or wash away easily.
  • It can give the court surface an unfinished, sloppy appearance.

So in general, having excess loose sand defeats the purpose and benefits sand provides when integrated properly into the court substrate. Facilities and players alike should aim to avoid or minimize loose sand accumulation as much as possible.

Causes of Loose Sand Buildup

How does loose sand accumulate, and how can it be prevented? Some common causes include:

  • Insufficient smoothing and integration during application.
  • Overapplying sand at too great a depth.
  • Allowing sand to be displaced and not brushing regularly.
  • Using large granules that resist integrating smoothly.
  • Failure to edge and contain sand at the court perimeter.

With quality sand selection, controlled application in thin layers, and routine smoothing and perimeter edging, excess loose sand can be avoided.

Managing Loose Sand Issues

When loose sand does build up, it’s important to manage it promptly to restore ideal court conditions. Here are some tips:

  • Brush and smooth regularly to work loose granules back into the court surface.
  • Remove drifts and piles manually with flat brooms and shovels.
  • Consider court resurfacing or repair if cracks allow excessive sand loss.
  • Wash dirty sand and separate all fines to reuse only quality grains.
  • Check moisture levels and improve drainage if excess sand displacement occurs.
  • Increase edging and containment measures to reduce perimeter sand loss.
  • Adjust application practices to use less sand and enhance binding to the court.

With proper diligence and preventive care, loose sand can be minimized for excellent court playability and appearance.

Achieving Just Enough Grip

The ultimate goal is to have the ideal amount of sand worked into the court substrate to give players controlled traction. When integrated correctly, the sand is hidden from view but still tangibly felt underfoot. The grip should be subtle and consistent – noticeable but not to the point of impeding smooth play.

Loose sand equals wasted sand that isn’t fulfilling its purpose. Careful application and diligent upkeep helps maximize the benefits of tennis court sand while avoiding messy excess accumulation. With just the right sandy crunch underfoot, players can feel confident to chase down every ball.

So while a pure loose sand surface would quickly become an unplayable mess, a dusting of tactile sand integrated into the court strikes the perfect balance. Blend it, shield it, smoothen and renew it – taking this care allows us to enjoy the simple pleasure of sliding across a sandy court chasing tennis glory!


What kind of sand is used for tennis courts?

Silica sand is most often used on tennis courts. Its durability provides excellent traction without breaking down.

What are tennis courts coated with?

Tennis courts have a thin layer of sand worked into the top layer. This sand helps create the ideal playing surface.

Is a tennis court just concrete?

No, tennis courts involve multiple layers under the surface coating. Concrete is usually the base but not the top.

Do clay courts have sand?

Yes, clay courts have sand incorporated into the clay surface to provide grip and absorption.

Is Wimbledon grass or clay?

Wimbledon’s courts are grass. The grass grows on top of very carefully prepared soil layers.

Are clay courts harder to play on?

Clay courts are slower and can be more physically demanding on players’ legs and movement. But no surface is inherently “harder” overall.


Sand is an integral part of quality tennis courts even though it’s often overlooked. The sand provides traction, absorbs moisture, and creates an even playing surface. Silica sand specifically offers durability and optimal grip.

Regular maintenance like brushing and reapplication preserves these benefits over time. With attention to detail, tennis court sand can enable smooth, fast play and enhance the classic tactile joy of moving on a gritty court.

When properly integrated, sand transforms a slab of concrete into a field of dreams under our shoes.

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